Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that makes it difficult for people to read, write and/or spell. It has nothing to do with the person’s intelligence. Having dyslexia does not mean that your child’s ability to learn is below average. Dyslexia is a term of Greek origin, dys meaning “difficulty’ and lexia meaning ‘trouble with words. Therefore, dyslexia means trouble with words.

Dyslexia is a language-based hidden learning difficulty.  It mainly affects the development of literacy and language-related skills. It is characterized by difficulties with working memory, processing speed, accurate and/or fluent word recognition, and the automatic development of skills that may not match up to an individual’s other cognitive abilities.

People with dyslexia have difficulties learning to read, spell, and express thoughts in writing.  They may also experience difficulties in sequencing, remembering what they have read, listening, following directions, and organizing their thought or expressing them clearly.

Dyslexia is the most common language-based learning difficulty and a common cause of failure in school. It occurs across a range of intellectual abilities.   It is best thought of as a continuum, not a distinct category.  Undiagnosed early, individuals with dyslexia may be perceived as lazy, or unmotivated and often function significantly below their potential. Early identification is, therefore, key to early intervention.


Signs of Dyslexia


  • Unexpected difficulty in learning to read, write and spell e.g. reversing letters (d, b) doy for boy, ded, for bed, Spells phonetically e.g. nek for neck, hed for head and can spell the same word in different ways in the same piece of work.
  • Trouble remembering facts and numbers, short memory processing.
  • Problem in Learning and understanding new skills; instead, relies heavily on memorization
  • Problem following a sequence of directions
  • Trouble with words in maths
  • Leaves out, repeats or adds extra words, or misses or repeats a line.
  • Trouble reading unfamiliar words, often making wild guesses because he/ she cannot sound out the word

Areas affected by Dyslexia

Reading problems 

  • Loses place on the page, skip lines, or rereads lines.
  • Reads words in the wrong order.
  • Skips small words such as a the, to, of, were, and from.
  • Recognizes a word on one page but not on the another
  • Inserts extra letters in a word when reading. E.g. may read tail as trail.
  • letters as the target word. Deletes letters in a word when reading example, may read sag instead of sang.
  • Switches the order of letters in a word. For example, may read mug as gum.
  • Ignores punctuation when reading.
  • Makes up part of the story based on the illustrations or context clues instead of reading the actual words on the page.
  • Reads at a level substantially below that of peers.
  • Demonstrates poor reading comprehension.
  • Has difficulty reading single words on a flashcard.
  • Is fatigued after reading for a short time
  • Claim stomach pain when reading


  • Deletes letters in a word when spelling. For example, may write craft instead of craft. Again, the misspelled word often has the same beginning and ending letters as the target word.
  • Switches the order of letters in a word. For example, may write special instead of special.
  • Has difficulty copying words from another paper or the board. Copies letter by letter, referring to the original copy for almost every letter.
  • Produces messy papers, including many crossed-out or erased words.
  • Misspells many common words like said, there, and does.
  • May be able to spell the words on a spelling test after much studying, but then misspells the same words outside of spelling class.

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